Refractory metals in meteorites suggest non-uniform structure of early solar system disk

Four and a half billion years ago, the nascent solar system was a chaotic cloud of gas and dust. This primordial mix, swirling around the newly formed sun, began to condense and coalesce into solid bodies, giving rise to asteroids and planets. This initial stage of planetary formation occurred within a structure known as a … Read more

X-ray observations help identify potentially habitable exoplanets

Using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA’s (European Space Agency’s) XMM-Newton, astronomers are exploring whether nearby stars could host habitable exoplanets, based on whether they emit radiation that could destroy potential conditions for life as we know it. This type of research will help guide observations with the next generation of telescopes aiming to take … Read more

Cosmology: Studying the Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Cosmology is the scientific study of the large-scale properties of the universe as a whole. It aims to understand the origin, evolution, structure, and eventual fate of the universe. By examining cosmic phenomena such as the Big Bang, cosmic microwave background radiation, dark matter, and dark energy, cosmologists develop theories and models that explain how … Read more

New simulation shows reduced risk of heat damage in fusion reactors

The furious exhaust heat generated by a fusing plasma in a commercial-scale reactor may not be as damaging to the vessel’s innards as once thought, according to researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the ITER Organization (ITER). “This discovery fundamentally changes how we … Read more

New method for quieting the quantum world

One of the biggest challenges in quantum technology and quantum sensing is “noise”–seemingly random environmental disturbances that can disrupt the delicate quantum states of qubits, the fundamental units of quantum information. Looking deeper at this issue, JILA Associate Fellow and University of Colorado Boulder Physics Assistant Professor Shuo Sun collaborated with Andrés Montoya-Castillo, Assistant Professor … Read more

CRISPR increases gene expression for better photosynthesis

A team from the Innovative Genomics Institute at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) has produced an increase in gene expression in a food crop by changing its upstream regulatory DNA. While other studies have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing to knock out or decrease the expression of genes, new research published in Science Advances is the … Read more

Scientists discover slowest-spinning neutron star yet

Australian scientists from the University of Sydney and Australia’s national science agency, CSIRO, have detected what is likely a neutron star spinning slower than any other ever measured. No other radio-emitting neutron star, out of the more than 3,000 discovered so far, has been discovered rotating so slowly. The results are published in Nature Astronomy. Lead author Dr. … Read more

Iron cathodes for lithium-ion batteries promise sustainability and cost reduction

What if a common element, rather than scarce and expensive ones, became a key component in electric car batteries? A groundbreaking collaboration, co-led by an Oregon State University chemistry researcher, is aiming to ignite a green battery revolution by demonstrating that iron can replace cobalt and nickel as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. The … Read more

Scientists detect carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide ices on trans-neptunian objects for the first time

For the first time, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide ices have been observed in the far reaches of our solar system on trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). A research team, led by planetary scientists Mário Nascimento De Prá and Noemí Pinilla-Alonso from the University of Central Florida’s Florida Space Institute (FSI), made the findings by using the … Read more

Scientists discover fundamental property of photons to aid fusion energy

Both literally and figuratively, light pervades the world. It banishes darkness, conveys telecommunications signals between continents and makes visible the invisible, from faraway galaxies to the smallest bacterium. Light can also help heat the plasma within ring-shaped devices known as tokamaks as scientists worldwide strive to harness the fusion process to generate green electricity. Now, … Read more

New study identifies potentially temperate exoplanet gliese 12 b, 40 light-years from earth

Astronomers have made the rare and tantalizing discovery of an Earth-like exoplanet 40 light-years away that may be just a little warmer than our own world. The new paper “Gliese 12 b, A Temperate Earth-sized Planet at 12 Parsecs Discovered with TESS and CHEOPS,” has been published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. … Read more

Webb and Hubble data reveal tidal heating as the cause of WASP-107 b’s puffiness

Why is the warm gas-giant exoplanet WASP-107 b so puffy? Two independent teams of researchers have an answer. Data collected using NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, combined with prior observations from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, show surprisingly little methane (CH4) in the planet’s atmosphere, indicating that the interior of WASP-107 b must be significantly hotter … Read more

Study reveals unexpected magnon transport in antiferromagnets for quantum information processing

The spin of the electron is nature’s perfect quantum bit, capable of extending the range of information storage beyond “one” or “zero.” Exploiting the electron’s spin degree of freedom (possible spin states) is a central goal of quantum information science. Recent progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) researchers Joseph Orenstein, Yue Sun, Jie … Read more

Attosecond spectroscopy captures furan ring-opening dynamics in real time

Chemical reactions are complex mechanisms. Many different dynamic processes are involved, affecting both the electrons and the nucleus of the present atoms. Very often, the strongly coupled electron and nuclear dynamics induce radiation-less relaxation processes known as conical intersections. Such dynamics, which are at the basis of many biological and chemical relevant functions, are extremely … Read more

Researchers achieve record fusion plasma conditions in tungsten environment at WEST tokamak

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) measured a new record for a fusion device internally clad in tungsten, the element that could be the best fit for the commercial-scale machines required to make fusion a viable energy source for the world. The device sustained a hot fusion plasma … Read more

Study suggests early supermassive black holes grew faster than their host galaxies

MIT astronomers have observed the elusive starlight surrounding some of the earliest quasars in the universe. The distant signals, which trace back more than 13 billion years to the universe’s infancy, are revealing clues to how the very first black holes and galaxies evolved. Quasars are the blazing centers of active galaxies, which host an … Read more

Animal Physiology: Functions and Adaptations in Animals

Animal physiology is the branch of biology that focuses on understanding the biological functions and adaptations of animals, ranging from microscopic organisms to complex multicellular organisms. It encompasses a wide range of topics, including cellular processes, organ systems, homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, behavior, and adaptations to diverse environments. By studying animal physiology, scientists gain insights into … Read more

Computer simulations suggest link between stellar kicks and white dwarf feeding habits

Dead stars known as white dwarfs, have a mass like the sun while being similar in size to Earth. They are common in our galaxy, as 97% of stars are white dwarfs. As stars reach the end of their lives, their cores collapse into the dense ball of a white dwarf, making our galaxy seem … Read more

Astronomer leads Euclid’s mission to unravel the universe’s expansion

On July 1, 2023, Euclid, a unique European space telescope was launched from Cape Canaveral. The launch was undoubtedly the highlight of my career as an astronomer, but witnessing the result of years of work being put on a rocket is not for the faint of heart. Following a perfect launch, Euclid swiftly arrived to … Read more

New technique determines age of “Lucy’s baby” asteroid at 2-3 million years old

An asteroid dubbed “Lucy’s baby” after a NASA spacecraft discovered it is orbiting another asteroid last November is,, in fact,, a solar system toddler—just 2–3 million years old, a Cornell-led research team estimates using novel statistical calculations. The team derived the age of Selam, a “moonlet” circling the small asteroid Dinkinesh in the main asteroid … Read more