Scientists recreate ancient ocean floor to study life’s origins

Where did life first form on Earth? Some scientists think it could have been around hydrothermal vents that may have existed at the bottom of the ocean 4.5 billion years ago. In a new paper in the journal Astrobiology, scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory describe how they mimicked possible ancient undersea environments with a … Read more

Researchers control quantum states with spin-polarized currents

Researchers at ETH Zurich have achieved a significant breakthrough in quantum physics by demonstrating that quantum states of single electron spins can be controlled using spin-polarized electron currents. This pioneering method holds potential for future applications in electronic circuit elements, potentially revolutionizing data storage and processing. The Spin of Electrons Electrons possess an intrinsic angular … Read more

Photocatalytic quadruple electron transfer enables light-driven ester reduction

The sweet smell of strawberries and other fruits is thanks to a chemical compound called ester, which is also found in many fats and polyesters. The ubiquitous compound can be broken down to produce desirable alcohols and other chemicals for use across industries, including pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, but the process can be costly, both financially … Read more

Physicists achieve breakthrough in quantum entanglement with top quarks

A team of physicists led by University of Rochester professor Regina Demina has made a groundbreaking discovery in the realm of quantum entanglement, an enigmatic phenomenon famously referred to by Albert Einstein as “spooky action at a distance.” Quantum entanglement involves the interlinked behavior of tiny particles that, once having interacted, can influence each other … Read more

Record-breaking fusion data now open to all

High-temperature fusion plasma experiments conducted in the Large Helical Device (LHD) of the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), have renewed the world record for an acquired data amount, 0.92 terabytes (TB) per experiment, in February 2022, by using a full range of state-of-the-art plasma diagnostic devices. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is … Read more

Cosmology: Studying the Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Cosmology is the scientific study of the large-scale properties of the universe as a whole. It aims to understand the origin, evolution, structure, and eventual fate of the universe. By examining cosmic phenomena such as the Big Bang, cosmic microwave background radiation, dark matter, and dark energy, cosmologists develop theories and models that explain how … Read more

Study reveals coordinated carbon fixation strategies in deep-sea vent symbionts

In the deep-sea environment of the East Pacific Rise, where sunlight does not penetrate and the surroundings are known for their extreme temperatures, skull-crushing pressures, and toxic compounds, lives Riftia pachyptila, a giant hydrothermal vent tubeworm. Growing up to 6 feet tall with a deep-red plume, Riftia does not have a digestive system but thrives … Read more

Scientists create optical Kármán vortex street

In a study published in Nature Communications, collaborating physicists from Singapore and the UK have reported an optical analog of the Kármán vortex street (KVS). This optical KVS pulse reveals fascinating parallels between fluid transport and energy flow of structured light. Yijie Shen, study lead author from Nanyang Technological University, says, “We introduce a type of light pulse … Read more

New technique enables on-demand creation of qubits in silicon with atomic precision

Quantum computers have the potential to solve complex problems in human health, drug discovery, and artificial intelligence millions of times faster than some of the world’s fastest supercomputers. A network of quantum computers could advance these discoveries even faster. But before that can happen, the computer industry will need a reliable way to string together … Read more

New simulation shows reduced risk of heat damage in fusion reactors

The furious exhaust heat generated by a fusing plasma in a commercial-scale reactor may not be as damaging to the vessel’s innards as once thought, according to researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the ITER Organization (ITER). “This discovery fundamentally changes how we … Read more

Machine learning algorithms enhance search for new physics at the LHC

One of the main goals of the LHC experiments is to look for signs of new particles, which could explain many of the unsolved mysteries in physics. Often, searches for new physics are designed to look for one specific type of new particle at a time, using theoretical predictions as a guide. But what about … Read more

Scientists generate relativistic plasmas on Earth

An international team of scientists has developed a novel way to experimentally produce plasma ‘fireballs’ on Earth. Black holes and neutron stars are among the densest known objects in the universe. Within and around these extreme astrophysical environments exist plasmas, the fourth fundamental state of matter alongside solids, liquids, and gases. Specifically, the plasmas at … Read more

New theory quantifies information carried by waves in interaction with environment

Waves pick up information from their environment through which they propagate. A theory of information carried by waves has now been developed at TU Wien—with astonishing results that can be utilized for technical applications. Ultrasound is used to analyze the body, radar systems to study airspace or seismic waves to study the interior of our … Read more

Scientists unravel the electronic structure of promethium

When element 61, also known as promethium, was first isolated by scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1945, it completed the series of chemical elements known as lanthanides. However, aspects of the element’s exact chemical nature have remained a mystery until last year, when a team of scientists from ORNL … Read more

CRISPR increases gene expression for better photosynthesis

A team from the Innovative Genomics Institute at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) has produced an increase in gene expression in a food crop by changing its upstream regulatory DNA. While other studies have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing to knock out or decrease the expression of genes, new research published in Science Advances is the … Read more

Theory of Everything

The quest for a Theory of Everything (TOE) is one of the most ambitious scientific endeavors, aiming to unify all fundamental forces and particles in a single, all-encompassing theoretical framework. This grand vision seeks to bridge the gap between the two main pillars of modern physics: General Relativity, which describes the macroscopic world of gravity … Read more

Revolutionary carbon fiber electrocatalysts pave the way for affordable green hydrogen production

A groundbreaking technology has been developed to address the limitations of current catalyst electrodes, facilitating the large-scale production of green hydrogen at a relatively low cost. This significant advancement was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The innovative project was led by Professor Han Gi Chae from the Department of Materials Science … Read more

Magnetic quivers provide geometric description of quantum vacua in supersymmetric QFTs

A simple concept of decay and fission of “magnetic quivers” helps to clarify complex quantum physics and mathematical structures. An international research team led by Marcus Sperling, a project leader at the Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, has sparked interest in the scientific community with pioneering results in quantum physics. In their current study, … Read more

FRIB facility measures mass of aluminum-22, potential proton halo candidate

In May 2022, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU), launched its precision measurement program. Staff from FRIB’s Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility take high-energy, rare-isotope beams generated at FRIB and cool them to a lower energy state. Afterward, the researchers measure specific particles’ masses at high … Read more

3D-printed photonic lantern enables compact spatial mode (De-)multiplexing

Optical waves propagating through air or multi-mode fiber can be patterned or decomposed using orthogonal spatial modes, with far-ranging applications in imaging, communication, and directed energy. Yet the systems that perform these wavefront manipulations are cumbersome and large, restricting their utilization to high-end applications. The development of a free-standing microscale photonic lantern spatial mode (de-)multiplexer … Read more