Scientists recreate ancient ocean floor to study life’s origins

Where did life first form on Earth? Some scientists think it could have been around hydrothermal vents that may have existed at the bottom of the ocean 4.5 billion years ago. In a new paper in the journal Astrobiology, scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory describe how they mimicked possible ancient undersea environments with a … Read more

Researchers control quantum states with spin-polarized currents

Researchers at ETH Zurich have achieved a significant breakthrough in quantum physics by demonstrating that quantum states of single electron spins can be controlled using spin-polarized electron currents. This pioneering method holds potential for future applications in electronic circuit elements, potentially revolutionizing data storage and processing. The Spin of Electrons Electrons possess an intrinsic angular … Read more

Refractory metals in meteorites suggest non-uniform structure of early solar system disk

Four and a half billion years ago, the nascent solar system was a chaotic cloud of gas and dust. This primordial mix, swirling around the newly formed sun, began to condense and coalesce into solid bodies, giving rise to asteroids and planets. This initial stage of planetary formation occurred within a structure known as a … Read more

Study provides evidence of Earth’s inner core slowing down

University of Southern California scientists have proven that the Earth’s inner core is backtracking—slowing down—in relation to the planet’s surface, as shown in new research published in Nature. Movement of the inner core has been debated by the scientific community for two decades, with some research indicating that the inner core rotates faster than the … Read more

Celtic burial mounds yield DNA evidence of dynasty and trade links

The Celtic culture of the pre-Roman Iron Age in Western and Central Europe has left numerous traces to this day, not least in the form of enormous burial mounds and spectacular archaeological artifacts. Despite this rich legacy, much about this civilization remains hidden from us. In a collaboration between the State Office for the Preservation … Read more

Single-atom iron catalysts for water purification

The rapid increase in global industrialization in the past centuries has resulted in the disposal of excessive toxic pollutants into the environment, seriously threatening the aquatic ecosystem and human health. Peroxymonosulfate-based advanced oxidation processes (PMS-AOPs) are appealing techniques to treat these toxic pollutants. Leveraging diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS), AOPs are sought to oxidize or … Read more

Iron cathodes for lithium-ion batteries promise sustainability and cost reduction

What if a common element, rather than scarce and expensive ones, became a key component in electric car batteries? A groundbreaking collaboration, co-led by an Oregon State University chemistry researcher, is aiming to ignite a green battery revolution by demonstrating that iron can replace cobalt and nickel as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. The … Read more

Adjustable filter paves the way for next-gen wireless communication

In the early 2010s, LightSquared, a multibillion-dollar startup promising to revolutionize cellular communications, declared bankruptcy. The company couldn’t figure out how to prevent its signals from interfering with those of GPS systems. Now, Penn Engineers have developed a new tool that could prevent such problems from ever happening again: an adjustable filter that can successfully prevent … Read more

Marine experiment suggests Mycenaean armor was functional for combat

A famous Mycenaean suit of armor was not just ceremonial, but suitable for extended combat, according to a study published May 22 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Andreas Flouris of the University of Thessaly, Greece and colleagues. One of the oldest known suits of European armor is a 3,500-year-old suit found near the … Read more

Heat treatment transforms amorphous alloy for transverse thermoelectric conversion

A research team from NIMS and Nagoya University has demonstrated that an iron-based amorphous alloy, widely used as a soft magnetic material in transformers and motors, can be transformed into a “transverse” thermoelectric conversion material that converts electric and thermal currents in orthogonal directions, with just a short period of heat treatment. The study is published online … Read more

Plant Genetics: Breeding and Genetic Modification

Plant genetics encompasses the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in plants, including their breeding, genetic modification, inheritance patterns, molecular mechanisms, and applications in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and biotechnology. Understanding plant genetics is essential for improving crop traits, developing new crop varieties, enhancing agricultural productivity, ensuring food security, and addressing global challenges such as … Read more

Microbial Ecology: Roles of Microorganisms in Ecosystems

Microbial ecology is the branch of ecology that studies the interactions between microorganisms and their environment, including other organisms, abiotic factors, and biogeochemical processes. Microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses, play essential roles in ecosystem dynamics, nutrient cycling, energy flow, and biogeochemical transformations. Understanding microbial ecology is crucial for elucidating the functioning of … Read more

Botany: Diversity and Adaptations of Plants

Botany, the scientific study of plants, encompasses a vast array of topics ranging from plant structure and function to their evolutionary history, ecological interactions, and economic importance. Plants are essential for life on Earth, serving as the primary producers in ecosystems, providing oxygen, food, shelter, and numerous other resources for humans and other organisms. The … Read more

Roman tomb mystery solved: Mother-daughter bond uncovered after 20 years

When a grave was discovered in Wels 20 years ago, the find was thought to be an early medieval double burial of a married couple and a horse due to its unusual features. Only now could the biological gender and family relationships of those buried be clarified using the most modern archaeological technologies. Under the … Read more

Plant Physiology: Adaptations and Growth Mechanisms

Plant physiology is the branch of biology that focuses on the study of how plants function, grow, develop, and respond to their environment. It encompasses a wide range of topics, including plant anatomy, biochemistry, metabolism, genetics, reproduction, and interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Understanding plant physiology is essential for agriculture, forestry, ecology, environmental science, … Read more

Ryugu asteroid samples offer new insights into space weathering and early solar system

Analyzing samples retrieved from the asteroid Ryugu by the Japanese Space Agency’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft has revealed new insights into the magnetic and physical bombardment environment of interplanetary space. The results of the study, carried out by Professor Yuki Kimura at Hokkaido University and co-workers at 13 other institutions in Japan, are published in the journal … Read more

The Interstellar Medium: Cosmic Gas and Dust

The interstellar medium (ISM) is the vast expanse of gas and dust that fills the space between stars in galaxies. Comprising a complex mixture of elements, molecules, and particles, the ISM plays a crucial role in the formation and evolution of stars, planets, and galaxies. Understanding the properties and dynamics of the interstellar medium is … Read more

Martian Mysteries: Exploring the Red Planet

Mars, often referred to as the Red Planet, has captivated human imagination for centuries with its mysterious allure. As the fourth planet from the Sun and Earth’s nearest planetary neighbor, Mars has been a focal point of space exploration and scientific inquiry. From ancient myths and speculative fiction to modern-day missions and discoveries, the exploration … Read more

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

The origin and evolution of the universe have fascinated humanity for millennia. Modern scientific theories, such as the Big Bang theory, provide a framework for understanding these cosmic processes. The universe began as an unimaginably dense and hot singularity around 13.8 billion years ago, expanding rapidly and cooling over time. Through cosmic inflation, galaxies, stars, … Read more

The Role of Asteroids in Solar System Evolution

Asteroids play a significant role in the evolution and dynamics of our solar system, influencing planetary formation, composition, and ongoing processes. These rocky bodies, ranging in size from small boulders to large dwarf planets, are remnants of the early solar nebula from which the planets formed. Origins and Diversity of Asteroids Asteroids are rocky or … Read more