Azole antifungals trigger self-destruction in pathogens, study reveals

Scientists have discovered that the most widely-used class of antifungals in the world causes pathogens to self-destruct. The University of Exeter-led research could help improve ways to protect food security and human lives. Fungal diseases account for the loss of up to a quarter of the world’s crops. They also pose a risk to humans … Read more

How viruses could become the next cancer treatment

In the global quest for effective cancer treatments, researchers are uncovering promising strategies in the most unexpected of places: the very viruses we typically strive to avoid. Pathogens such as the common cold and influenza, once seen solely as threats to our health, are now being studied for their potential to target and destroy cancer … Read more

Study shows decline in plant-pathogen interactions following loss of large herbivores in rainforest

Insects and microorganisms that feed on plants, cut up leaves, modify leaf tissue or produce leaf spots and other kinds of damage, are usually known as pests and considered harmful, yet interactions between plants and their natural enemies are important sources of biodiversity. In tropical forests, for example, these “pests” are part of large ecological … Read more

Microbial Genetics: Genetic Mechanisms in Bacteria and Archaea

Microbial genetics is a specialized field within genetics that focuses on the study of genetic mechanisms in bacteria and archaea, collectively referred to as microorganisms or microbes. These single-celled organisms play crucial roles in various ecosystems, contributing to nutrient cycling, biogeochemical processes, symbiotic relationships, and human health. Microbial genetics explores the diversity, evolution, regulation, and … Read more

Plant Genetics: Breeding and Genetic Modification

Plant genetics encompasses the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in plants, including their breeding, genetic modification, inheritance patterns, molecular mechanisms, and applications in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and biotechnology. Understanding plant genetics is essential for improving crop traits, developing new crop varieties, enhancing agricultural productivity, ensuring food security, and addressing global challenges such as … Read more

Gene Editing Technologies: CRISPR and Beyond

Gene editing technologies have revolutionized the field of molecular biology and genetics by providing powerful tools to precisely modify DNA sequences, study gene functions, correct genetic mutations, and engineer biological systems. Among the most widely used and transformative gene editing technologies is CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) and its associated protein, Cas (CRISPR-associated … Read more

Microbial Ecology: Roles of Microorganisms in Ecosystems

Microbial ecology is the branch of ecology that studies the interactions between microorganisms and their environment, including other organisms, abiotic factors, and biogeochemical processes. Microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses, play essential roles in ecosystem dynamics, nutrient cycling, energy flow, and biogeochemical transformations. Understanding microbial ecology is crucial for elucidating the functioning of … Read more

Immunotherapy: Harnessing the Immune System for Disease Treatment

Immunotherapy represents a revolutionary approach to disease treatment that harnesses the power of the immune system to combat various ailments, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, and allergies. Unlike traditional treatments such as chemotherapy or surgery, which directly target the disease, immunotherapy works by stimulating or enhancing the body’s immune response to recognize and destroy … Read more

Animal Physiology: Functions and Adaptations in Animals

Animal physiology is the branch of biology that focuses on understanding the biological functions and adaptations of animals, ranging from microscopic organisms to complex multicellular organisms. It encompasses a wide range of topics, including cellular processes, organ systems, homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, behavior, and adaptations to diverse environments. By studying animal physiology, scientists gain insights into … Read more

Botany: Diversity and Adaptations of Plants

Botany, the scientific study of plants, encompasses a vast array of topics ranging from plant structure and function to their evolutionary history, ecological interactions, and economic importance. Plants are essential for life on Earth, serving as the primary producers in ecosystems, providing oxygen, food, shelter, and numerous other resources for humans and other organisms. The … Read more

Study shows sunflowers recruit microbes to fight off fungal disease

Sunflowers aren’t just beautiful symbols of summer—they are also economically significant, ranking as the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, and new research suggests that some bacteria might help protect the crop from white-mold destruction. Sunflowers can be harvested for a number of products including seeds and oil, for which consumer demand has … Read more

Immunology: The Body’s Defense Mechanisms

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that focuses on the study of the immune system, which is the body’s intricate network of organs, tissues, cells, and molecules that work together to defend against pathogens, foreign substances, and abnormal cells. The immune system plays a vital role in maintaining health and protecting the body from … Read more

Biotechnology: Applications in Medicine and Industry

Biotechnology is a rapidly evolving field that harnesses biological processes and systems to develop innovative solutions for various applications in medicine and industry. It encompasses a diverse range of techniques, including genetic engineering, fermentation, and cell culture, to manipulate biological systems for practical purposes. Biotechnology has revolutionized healthcare, agriculture, environmental science, and industrial manufacturing, offering … Read more

Physiology: Functions of Organ Systems

Physiology is the branch of biology that focuses on the study of the functions and processes of living organisms and their parts. It encompasses various levels of organization, from cells and tissues to organs and organ systems, and examines how these components work together to maintain homeostasis and support life. In this discussion, we’ll delve … Read more

Microbiology: The World of Microscopic Organisms

Microbiology is the branch of biology that explores the world of microscopic organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and algae. These tiny life forms, invisible to the naked eye, play essential roles in ecosystems, human health, agriculture, industry, and environmental processes. Microbiology encompasses diverse areas of study, from microbial diversity and evolution to microbial ecology, … Read more

Human Anatomy: Understanding the Body’s Structure

Human anatomy, the study of the body’s structure and organization, provides a foundational framework for understanding the complex organization and functions of the human body. From the microscopic level of cells and tissues to the macroscopic level of organs and organ systems, human anatomy elucidates the anatomical structures, physiological processes, and interconnected systems that sustain … Read more

The Cell: Fundamental Unit of Life

The cell, often described as the fundamental unit of life, represents the building block of all living organisms. This microscopic entity is the smallest structural and functional unit of life, capable of carrying out the essential processes necessary for an organism’s survival and reproduction. From single-celled organisms like bacteria to complex multicellular organisms like humans, … Read more

Mac-1 inhibitor compound shows promise in blocking SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell cultures

Research appearing in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry shows for the first time SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, can be inhibited from replicating in living cell cultures using a compound that targets “Mac-1,” a protein key to defending SARS-CoV-2 against the human immune response. University of Kansas researchers in the lab of Anthony Fehr, associate professor … Read more

Blood biomarker identified for early detection of multiple sclerosis

In a discovery that could hasten treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), UC San Francisco scientists have discovered a harbinger in the blood of some people who later went on to develop the disease. In about 1 in 10 cases of MS, the body begins producing a distinctive set of antibodies against its own … Read more

Study unravels plant immune system’s protein condensation mechanism

Plants, like us, have sophisticated immune systems to fight off invaders. A recent study published in Nature sheds light on a surprising method plants employ to activate a crucial class of immune proteins. Researchers led by Jijie Chai and a collaborative team have discovered that these proteins condense into tiny liquid droplets within the cell, … Read more