Study shows breakthrough infections enhance immune response to COVID-19

New research from scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) suggests people who received COVID-19 vaccines and then experienced “breakthrough” infections are especially well armed against future SARS-CoV-2 infections. By analyzing blood samples from study volunteers, the LJI researchers discovered that people who experienced symptomatic breakthrough infections develop T cells that are better at … Read more

Virology: Study of Viruses and Viral Diseases

Virology is the scientific study of viruses, their structure, function, evolution, and interactions with host organisms. Viruses are microscopic infectious agents that can infect a wide range of living organisms, from bacteria and archaea to plants, animals, and humans. They are unique entities that straddle the boundary between living and non-living, as they require host … Read more

Immunology: The Body’s Defense Mechanisms

Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that focuses on the study of the immune system, which is the body’s intricate network of organs, tissues, cells, and molecules that work together to defend against pathogens, foreign substances, and abnormal cells. The immune system plays a vital role in maintaining health and protecting the body from … Read more

The Cell: Fundamental Unit of Life

The cell, often described as the fundamental unit of life, represents the building block of all living organisms. This microscopic entity is the smallest structural and functional unit of life, capable of carrying out the essential processes necessary for an organism’s survival and reproduction. From single-celled organisms like bacteria to complex multicellular organisms like humans, … Read more

Loss of IgA antibodies identified as cause of post-stroke/heart attack immunodeficiency

Every year, between 250,000 and 300,000 people in Germany suffer from a stroke or heart attack. These patients suffer immune disturbances and are very frequently susceptible to life-threatening bacterial infections. Until now, little was known about the underlying mechanisms of this immune dysfunction. Research teams from the Faculty of Medicine at the University Hospital of … Read more

New technique revives decades-old cancer samples for immune response studies

Scientists have developed an improved technique for reading the genetic material associated with the body’s immune response to cancer, making it possible to study tissue samples that have been stored in archives for decades. Using this technique, which is much more sensitive than commercial equivalents and less costly, researchers are able to analyze archival cancer … Read more

Researchers develop modified compound with potent anti-HIV activity

A team of University of Michigan researchers has successfully modified a naturally occurring chemical compound in the lab, resulting in advanced lead compounds with anti-HIV activity. Their results, published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, offer a new path forward in the development of drugs that could potentially help cure—rather than treat—HIV. Although effective treatments are available to … Read more

Study links persistent UTI pain to nerve cell overgrowth in bladder

A perplexing problem for people with recurring urinary tract infections (UTIs) is persistent pain, even after antibiotics have successfully cleared the bacteria. Now Duke Health researchers have identified the likely cause—an overgrowth of nerve cells in the bladder. The finding, appearing March 1 in the journal Science Immunology, provides a potential new approach to managing … Read more

Study unveils how neutrophils support tumor growth

A groundbreaking research endeavor led by the A*STAR.Singapore Immunology Network (A*STAR.SIgN) has uncovered a profound shift in the behavior of neutrophils, a vital component of the body’s immune system, within certain cancer contexts. Rather than combating malignancies, these neutrophils undergo a transformation that actively fosters tumor growth. Through meticulous examination of neutrophils as they infiltrate … Read more

Immune gene variation linked to lung cancer risk, especially in smokers

Recent strides in cancer research have underscored the critical involvement of the immune system, particularly in the remarkable achievements of cancer immunotherapy. A groundbreaking investigation spearheaded by scientists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, in collaboration with the University of Helsinki and Massachusetts General Hospital, has shed illuminating insights … Read more

Scientists develop antibody to neutralize deadly snake venoms

Scientists at Scripps Research have engineered a groundbreaking antibody capable of neutralizing the lethal effects of venomous snake toxins from a diverse range of species across Africa, Asia, and Australia. This antibody, detailed in Science Translational Medicine, demonstrated its efficacy in protecting mice from the venom of notoriously deadly snakes such as black mambas and … Read more

Gene editing corrects immune defect in mice and infants

Some immune cells in our bodies see their “killer instinct” restricted after entering solid tumors, according to new research. In a new paper published in Nature Communications, a team led by researchers from the University of Birmingham and the University of Cambridge found how immune cells called natural killer cells (NK cells) rapidly lose their … Read more

CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing offers promise for children with rare immune disease

Some hereditary genetic defects cause an exaggerated immune response that can be fatal. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing tool, such defects can be corrected, thus normalizing the immune response, as researchers led by Klaus Rajewsky from the Max Delbrück Center now report in Science Immunology. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare disease of the immune … Read more

High-resolution spatiotemporal transcriptomics maps cellular interactions during ovulation in mice

An interdisciplinary collaboration has used a cutting-edge form of RNA tagging to map the gene expression that occurs during follicle maturation and ovulation in mice. The resulting atlas reveals a slew of previously unknown cellular and molecular interactions that drive ovulation, which is crucial for female fertility. The findings could prove pivotal for developing therapeutic … Read more

CD4+ T cells emerge as powerful melanoma fighters

A study led by the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity (Doherty Institute) has found that CD4+ T cells, traditionally called ‘helper T cells’ for their role in aiding the activation of other immune cells, are remarkably effective in controlling melanoma. University of Melbourne’s Dr. Emma Bawden, Postdoctoral Researcher at the Doherty Institute and … Read more

CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity

CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells, are a crucial subset of white blood cells that play a central role in orchestrating immune responses. While they are traditionally associated with assisting other immune cells in the defense against infections, emerging research highlights their significant involvement in antitumor immunity. The intricate interplay between CD4+ … Read more

T helper cell

T helper cells, also known as CD4+ T cells, are a crucial component of the immune system, playing a central role in orchestrating and regulating immune responses. These specialized white blood cells are essential for the body’s defense against pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The discovery and understanding of T helper cells have … Read more

COVID-19’s lasting impact on brain revealed

A groundbreaking study spearheaded by the University of Liverpool and King’s College London has unveiled unsettling revelations about the lasting impacts of COVID-19 on the brain. Despite the absence of abnormal inflammation markers in routine blood tests, the research indicates persistent markers of brain injury in individuals months after their COVID-19 infection has subsided. This … Read more

What is immunology?

Immunology is the branch of biology that focuses on the study of the immune system, a complex and highly specialized network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against harmful pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The immune system is a crucial component of the body’s defense mechanisms, … Read more

What is neuropharmacology?

Neuropharmacology is a specialized field within pharmacology that focuses on the study of how drugs affect the nervous system, both in terms of normal functioning and in the context of disease. This multidisciplinary science combines elements of neuroscience, pharmacology, and psychology to understand the interactions between drugs and the complex network of cells in the … Read more